Soon after, Parliament restored the monarchy and led back the Stuarts to the throne. Charles II was to rule, but under the political control of parliament. In restoration, succeeded by two kings, Charles II (1660 - 1685) and James II (1685-1688), the latter tried to restore the absolute monarchy and increase the influence of Catholicism.
Observing the intentions of James II, the parliament did not take long to react, then creating a new conflict between parliament and the king. The parliament ousted James II, and signed an agreement with the Dutch prince William of Orange, married Mary Stuart, daughter of James II. Under the agreement the parliament had given the English throne and in return William must respect the powers of parliament.
The defeat of James II and the coronation of the Dutch prince William III marked as the source of the episode known as the Glorious Revolution. The new monarch signed the Declaration of Rights, by which the parliament limited the power of the king. (By scribe Valdemir Mota de Menezes)
This site is an ever-growing compendium of information related to the events and people of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Your comments and suggestions are always welcome, and may become part of our efforts to document this exciting time in English legal history. The rights we cherish today have a history; we must understand where they came from in order to know why they exist.
The encyclopedia is an alphabetical listing of entries relating to the Revolution. You may also want to view the events in chronological order.
Please also come back frequently for new quotes and additional references in the bibliography.
A Chronology of the Reign of King James II (1685-88) and The Glorious Revolution (1688-89)
N.B.–In the late 17th Century, much of continental Europe used the modern calendar, i.e., the New Style (N. S.) or Gregorian calendar, introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. England and Scotland, however, still used the Old Style (O. S.) or Julian calendar; they did not adopt the modern calendar until 1752. Under both calendars it was always the same day of the week. Under the O. S. calendar New Year's Day was March 25; under the N. S. calendar New Year's Day was January 1. In the 17th Century, O. S. calendar events were 10 days of the month behind the N. S. date. Thus, the date William of Orange landed in England with his invasion force was Monday, November 5, 1688 O. S., and Monday, November 15, 1688 N. S., or, to provide both dates simultaneously, Monday, Nov. 15/5, 1688; and the date of the Presentation Ceremony in the Banqueting House at which William and Mary of Orange were offered and accepted the English throne, and thereby became King William III and Queen Mary II of England, was Wednesday, February 13, 1688 O. S., and Wednesday, February 23, 1689 N. S., or, to provide both dates simultaneously, Wednesday, Feb. 23/13, 1689/1688.
Generally, in this Chronology the dates given for events in England, Scotland, and Ireland are New Style (N. S.), followed by Old Style (O. S.); and the dates given for events on the continent of Europe are N. S. The new year is recognized as beginning on January 1 N. S., on March 25 O. S. Generally, dates for events in England, Scotland, and Ireland are New Style (N. S.) followed by Old Style (O. S.), and dates for events on the continent of Europe are N. S. The new year is recognized as beginning on January 1 N. S., on March 25 O. S.
February 16/6 Death of King Charles II; accession of
King James II.
May 3/April 23 Coronation of James II.
May 12/2 Earl of Argyle sets sail from Holland to
19/9 Titus Oates convicted of perjury,
10 Howell’s State Trials 1079
28/18 Titus Oates whipped at the cart’s tail.
29/19 Parliament meets.
June 1/May 22 Titus Oates again whipped.
June 3/May 24 Duke of Monmouth sets sail from Holland to
June 21/11 Monmouth and a small group of
supporters land at Lyme Regis.
28/18 Both Houses of Parliament pass and James
approves act of attainder of Monmouth.
Argyle captured while crossing River Clyde
30/20 Monmouth proclaims himself King at
July 10/June 30 Argyle executed in Edinburgh.
July 12/2 James prorogues Parliament.
16/6 Battle of Sedgemoor; Monmouth defeated.
18/8 Monmouth captured.
25/15 Monmouth beheaded on Tower Hill.
September During this month the Bloody
Assizes occur in western England.
September 12/2 Lady Alice Lisle beheaded,
11 Howell’s State Trials 298 (1685).
October 10/Sept.30 Jeffreys elevated by James from Chief
Justice of Court of King’s Bench to Lord High Chancellor.
October 18 King Louis XIV revokes the Edict of
October 21/11 James dismisses Sir George Saville,
Marquis of Halifax, the Lord President.
October 23/Nov. 2 Elizabeth Gaunt burnt at the stake,
11 Howell’s State Trials 382 (1685).
November 19/9 Parliament meets; James delivers the Royal
23/13 James loses a key vote in the House of
Commons by a margin of 183 to 182.
26/16 James loses another key vote in the
House of Commons, 212-170.
30/20 James prorogues Parliament;
James later dissolves Parliament
on 12/2 July 1687, and it never meets
again during his reign.
February 19/9 James dismisses two of the Twelve Judges.
April 30/20 James dismisses four more judges.
May 2/April 22 The Privy Council orders the common
hangman to burn publicly a copy of
Jean Claude’s Les Plaintes de
Protestants cruellement opprimes
dans la Royaume de France.
July 1/June 21 Godden v. Hales decided, upholding the
royal dispensing power, 11 Howell’s
State Trials 1166 (K.B. 1686).
27/17 James creates a new Court of High
Commission, headed by Jeffreys.
August 14/4 Henry Compton, Bishop of London,
appears before the High Commission
pursuant to a summons sent him.
September 16/6 The High Commission suspends
January 16/6 James dismisses Lawrence Hyde, Earl
of Rochester, the Lord Treasurer.
February During this month closeting by James;
James dismisses Henry Hyde, Earl of
Clarendon, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland;
and Richard “Lying Dick” Talbot, Earl
of Tyrconnel, is sent to rule Ireland
with the title of Lord Deputy.
February 22/12 James issues a Declaration of Indulgence
for Scotland, suspending penal laws
in matters ecclesiastical there.
April 14/4 James issues his first English Declaration of
Indulgence, suspending the penal laws
in matters ecclesiastical in England.
October/November During these months rumors begin to
circulate to the effect that James’s wife,
Queen Mary of Modena, is pregnant.
April During this month William, Prince of
Orange, begins preparations to invade
May 4/April 27 James issues his second Declaration of
Indulgence for England.
May 14/4 Privy Council orders the Church of \
England to read the second Declaration
of Indulgence during divine services
the next four Sundays.
28/18 The Seven Bishops (except Archbishop
Sancroft) present their petition to James.
June 3/May 27 Privy Council summons the Seven Bishops
to appear before it on June 18/8.
June 18/8 Black Friday: The Seven Bishops
appear before the Privy
Council and are committed to the Tower
on a charge of seditious libel.
20/10 Birth of Prince of Wales (known to
history as the Old Pretender).
25/15 The Seven Bishops are released on bail.
July 9/June 29 The Trial of the Seven Bishops, 12
Howell’s State Trials 183 (K.B. 1688),
10/30 The Seven Bishops are acquitted. Later
the same day the Invitation of the Immortal
Seven is dispatched to William.
July 13/3 James dismisses two more judges.
August During this month the first rumors begin
to circulate to the effect the Prince of
of Orange is going to invade England.
August 26/16 Final meeting of Court of High Commission.
September 3/Aug. 24 Privy Council orders writs to issue
for the convening of Parliament on
November 27 O.S.
September 22 William’s army begins the embarkation
September 24 Louis XIV invades the Rhineland, beginning
the Nine Years War.
September 27/17 Date of the last letter written by James
October 8 Embarkation of William’s army completed;
the States of Holland approves William’s
expedition. Also on this date (Sept. 28
O.S.) James issues a proclamation
announcing to the nation that a Dutch
invasion is imminent and cancelling the
planned meeting of Parliament in November.
October 10 William issues his first Declaration.
October 11 The last details for sailing are settled
and the invasion fleet is ready to sail
October 15/5 James announces in his Privy Council that
he will dissolve High Commission Court.
October 24 William issues his second Declaration;
in England today it is October 14 O.S.,
James II’s 55th birthday.
October 26 William bids farewell to States of
October 28 The States-General of the United Provinces
approves William’s expedition.
October 29 William’s fleet sets sail.
October 30 William’s fleet is driven back by a storm.
November 1/Oct. 22 James holds extraordinary meeting of
Privy Council to receive testimony and
depositions proving that the Prince
of Wales is his son by Queen Mary of
Modena, 12 Howell’s State Trials 123
November 5/Oct. 26 James dismisses Sunderland.
November 11 On this Thursday William’s fleet puts to
sea the second time.
November 13 On this Saturday William’s fleet sails through
the Straits of Dover and enters the English
November 14 William’s 38th birthday and 11th wedding
November 15/5 On this Monday William’s fleet arrives at
Torbay; the army begins to disembark.
16/6 William’s army begins to march up the
19/9 William enters Exeter.
22/12 The first men of quality begin to repair
25/15 The first of the provincial risings
occurs, in Cheshire.
28/18 James leaves London for Salisbury.
29/19 James arrives in Salisbury.
December 3/Nov. 23 Churchill defects to William.
4/24 Prince George defects to William.
6/26 Princess Anne flees London on her way
to defect to William; James returns to
Dec. 10/Nov. 30 James proclaims a Parliament will meet
on Jan. 25/15.
Dec. 20/10 Early this Monday morning Queen Mary of Modena
flees London heading for France, taking the Prince of Wales with her.
21/11 Early this Tuesday morning James flees London,
heading for France; an assemblage
of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal meets in
in London and resolves to apply to William.
22/12 On this remarkable Wednesday James is seized by
fishermen near Sheerness, on the
Isle of Sheppey; and Jeffreys is seized
in London. The terrible evening of
Wednesday/Thursday is forever known as
the Irish Night (or the Irish Fright).
26/16 On this Sunday James returns to London.
28/18 On this Tuesday, exactly one week after his
abortive flight from London, James leaves London
under guard heading for Rochester; later in the day William enters London.
Jan. 3/Dec. 23 On this Sunday, James flees Rochester,
heading for France.
5/25 On this Tuesday, Christmas day O.S., James
arrives in France; the Lords Spiritual and
Spiritual and Temporal request William
to take over the administration of the
government and to summon a convention.
6/26 The Commons request William to take over
the administration of the government and
to summon a convention.
8/28 William agrees to assume administration
of government and to summon a
February 1/Jan. 22 The Convention meets at Westminister.
7/28 The Commons resolves that James has
abdicated the government and that the
throne is thereby vacant.
February 16/6 The Lords Spiritual and Temporal resolve
that William and Mary be made King and
22/12 The Convention approves the Declaration
of Rights of 1689; William’s wife,
Mary, Princess of Orange, arrives in
23/13 On this Ash Wednesday, William and Mary are
offered and accept the crown in
ceremonies at the Banqueting Hall in
Whitehall Palace. They are immediately
proclaimed King William III and Queen Mary II.
March 5/Feb. 23 William approves the first statute of his
reign, the Parliament Act, 1689,
1 W. & M., ch. 1, transforming
the Convention into the Convention Parliament.
March 26/16 William approves the second statute of his
reign, 1 W. & M., ch. 2, an act suspending
habeas corpus for the first time.
April 1/March 22 James lands in Ireland.
April 21/11 Coronation of William and Mary.
28/18 Jeffreys dies a prisoner in the Tower.
May 17/7 England declares war on France.
June 3/May 24 William approves the Toleration Act,
1 W. & M., ch. 18.
September 2/Aug. 23 John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government
is licensed to be printed.
December 26/16 William approves the English Bill of
Rights of 1689, 1 W. & M. sess. 2,
ch. 2. Seven weeks later, on Feb. 16/6
1690/1689, William dissolves the ConventionParliament.