segunda-feira, 26 de dezembro de 2011


Soon after, Parliament restored the monarchy and led back the Stuarts to the throne. Charles II was to rule, but under the political control of parliament. In restoration, succeeded by two kings, Charles II (1660 - 1685) and James II (1685-1688), the latter tried to restore the absolute monarchy and increase the influence of Catholicism.

Observing the intentions of James II, the parliament did not take long to react, then creating a new conflict between parliament and the king. The parliament ousted James II, and signed an agreement with the Dutch prince William of Orange, married Mary Stuart, daughter of James II. Under the agreement the parliament had given the English throne and in return William must respect the powers of parliament.

The defeat of James II and the coronation of the Dutch prince William III marked as the source of the episode known as the Glorious Revolution. The new monarch signed the Declaration of Rights, by which the parliament limited the power of the king. (By scribe Valdemir Mota de Menezes)


This site is an ever-growing compendium of information related to the events and people of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

Your comments and suggestions are always welcome, and may become part of our efforts to document this exciting time in English legal history. The rights we cherish today have a history; we must understand where they came from in order to know why they exist.

The encyclopedia is an alphabetical listing of entries relating to the Revolution. You may also want to view the events in chronological order.

Please also come back frequently for new quotes and additional references in the bibliography.



A Chronology of the Reign of King James II (1685-88) and The Glorious Revolution (1688-89)

N.B.–In the late 17th Century, much of continental Europe used the modern calendar, i.e., the New Style (N. S.) or Gregorian calendar, introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. England and Scotland, however, still used the Old Style (O. S.) or Julian calendar; they did not adopt the modern calendar until 1752. Under both calendars it was always the same day of the week. Under the O. S. calendar New Year's Day was March 25; under the N. S. calendar New Year's Day was January 1. In the 17th Century, O. S. calendar events were 10 days of the month behind the N. S. date. Thus, the date William of Orange landed in England with his invasion force was Monday, November 5, 1688 O. S., and Monday, November 15, 1688 N. S., or, to provide both dates simultaneously, Monday, Nov. 15/5, 1688; and the date of the Presentation Ceremony in the Banqueting House at which William and Mary of Orange were offered and accepted the English throne, and thereby became King William III and Queen Mary II of England, was Wednesday, February 13, 1688 O. S., and Wednesday, February 23, 1689 N. S., or, to provide both dates simultaneously, Wednesday, Feb. 23/13, 1689/1688.

Generally, in this Chronology the dates given for events in England, Scotland, and Ireland are New Style (N. S.), followed by Old Style (O. S.); and the dates given for events on the continent of Europe are N. S. The new year is recognized as beginning on January 1 N. S., on March 25 O. S. Generally, dates for events in England, Scotland, and Ireland are New Style (N. S.) followed by Old Style (O. S.), and dates for events on the continent of Europe are N. S. The new year is recognized as beginning on January 1 N. S., on March 25 O. S.



February 16/6 Death of King Charles II; accession of

King James II.


May 3/April 23 Coronation of James II.

May 12/2 Earl of Argyle sets sail from Holland to

invade Scotland.

19/9 Titus Oates convicted of perjury,

10 Howell’s State Trials 1079

(K.B. 1685).

28/18 Titus Oates whipped at the cart’s tail.

29/19 Parliament meets.

June 1/May 22 Titus Oates again whipped.

June 3/May 24 Duke of Monmouth sets sail from Holland to

invade England.

June 21/11 Monmouth and a small group of

supporters land at Lyme Regis.

28/18 Both Houses of Parliament pass and James

approves act of attainder of Monmouth.

Argyle captured while crossing River Clyde

in Scotland.

30/20 Monmouth proclaims himself King at


July 10/June 30 Argyle executed in Edinburgh.

July 12/2 James prorogues Parliament.

16/6 Battle of Sedgemoor; Monmouth defeated.

18/8 Monmouth captured.

25/15 Monmouth beheaded on Tower Hill.

September During this month the Bloody

Assizes occur in western England.

September 12/2 Lady Alice Lisle beheaded,

11 Howell’s State Trials 298 (1685).

October 10/Sept.30 Jeffreys elevated by James from Chief

Justice of Court of King’s Bench to Lord High Chancellor.

October 18 King Louis XIV revokes the Edict of


October 21/11 James dismisses Sir George Saville,

Marquis of Halifax, the Lord President.

October 23/Nov. 2 Elizabeth Gaunt burnt at the stake,

11 Howell’s State Trials 382 (1685).

November 19/9 Parliament meets; James delivers the Royal


23/13 James loses a key vote in the House of

Commons by a margin of 183 to 182.

26/16 James loses another key vote in the

House of Commons, 212-170.

30/20 James prorogues Parliament;

James later dissolves Parliament

on 12/2 July 1687, and it never meets

again during his reign.

February 19/9 James dismisses two of the Twelve Judges.


April 30/20 James dismisses four more judges.

May 2/April 22 The Privy Council orders the common

hangman to burn publicly a copy of

Jean Claude’s Les Plaintes de

Protestants cruellement opprimes

dans la Royaume de France.

July 1/June 21 Godden v. Hales decided, upholding the

royal dispensing power, 11 Howell’s

State Trials 1166 (K.B. 1686).

27/17 James creates a new Court of High

Commission, headed by Jeffreys.

August 14/4 Henry Compton, Bishop of London,

appears before the High Commission

pursuant to a summons sent him.

September 16/6 The High Commission suspends



January 16/6 James dismisses Lawrence Hyde, Earl

of Rochester, the Lord Treasurer.

February During this month closeting by James;

James dismisses Henry Hyde, Earl of

Clarendon, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland;

and Richard “Lying Dick” Talbot, Earl

of Tyrconnel, is sent to rule Ireland

with the title of Lord Deputy.

February 22/12 James issues a Declaration of Indulgence

for Scotland, suspending penal laws

in matters ecclesiastical there.


April 14/4 James issues his first English Declaration of

Indulgence, suspending the penal laws

in matters ecclesiastical in England.

October/November During these months rumors begin to

circulate to the effect that James’s wife,

Queen Mary of Modena, is pregnant.


April During this month William, Prince of

Orange, begins preparations to invade


May 4/April 27 James issues his second Declaration of

Indulgence for England.

May 14/4 Privy Council orders the Church of \

England to read the second Declaration

of Indulgence during divine services

the next four Sundays.

28/18 The Seven Bishops (except Archbishop

Sancroft) present their petition to James.

June 3/May 27 Privy Council summons the Seven Bishops

to appear before it on June 18/8.

June 18/8 Black Friday: The Seven Bishops

appear before the Privy

Council and are committed to the Tower

on a charge of seditious libel.

20/10 Birth of Prince of Wales (known to

history as the Old Pretender).

25/15 The Seven Bishops are released on bail.

July 9/June 29 The Trial of the Seven Bishops, 12

Howell’s State Trials 183 (K.B. 1688),


10/30 The Seven Bishops are acquitted. Later

the same day the Invitation of the Immortal

Seven is dispatched to William.

July 13/3 James dismisses two more judges.

August During this month the first rumors begin

to circulate to the effect the Prince of

of Orange is going to invade England.

August 26/16 Final meeting of Court of High Commission.

September 3/Aug. 24 Privy Council orders writs to issue

for the convening of Parliament on

November 27 O.S.

September 22 William’s army begins the embarkation


September 24 Louis XIV invades the Rhineland, beginning

the Nine Years War.

September 27/17 Date of the last letter written by James

to William.

October 8 Embarkation of William’s army completed;

the States of Holland approves William’s

expedition. Also on this date (Sept. 28

O.S.) James issues a proclamation

announcing to the nation that a Dutch

invasion is imminent and cancelling the

planned meeting of Parliament in November.

October 10 William issues his first Declaration.

October 11 The last details for sailing are settled

and the invasion fleet is ready to sail

October 15/5 James announces in his Privy Council that

he will dissolve High Commission Court.

October 24 William issues his second Declaration;

in England today it is October 14 O.S.,

James II’s 55th birthday.

October 26 William bids farewell to States of


October 28 The States-General of the United Provinces

approves William’s expedition.

October 29 William’s fleet sets sail.

October 30 William’s fleet is driven back by a storm.

November 1/Oct. 22 James holds extraordinary meeting of

Privy Council to receive testimony and

depositions proving that the Prince

of Wales is his son by Queen Mary of

Modena, 12 Howell’s State Trials 123

(P.C. 1688).

November 5/Oct. 26 James dismisses Sunderland.

November 11 On this Thursday William’s fleet puts to

sea the second time.

November 13 On this Saturday William’s fleet sails through

the Straits of Dover and enters the English


November 14 William’s 38th birthday and 11th wedding


November 15/5 On this Monday William’s fleet arrives at

Torbay; the army begins to disembark.

16/6 William’s army begins to march up the


19/9 William enters Exeter.

22/12 The first men of quality begin to repair

to William.

25/15 The first of the provincial risings

occurs, in Cheshire.

28/18 James leaves London for Salisbury.

29/19 James arrives in Salisbury.

December 3/Nov. 23 Churchill defects to William.

4/24 Prince George defects to William.

6/26 Princess Anne flees London on her way

to defect to William; James returns to


Dec. 10/Nov. 30 James proclaims a Parliament will meet

on Jan. 25/15.

Dec. 20/10 Early this Monday morning Queen Mary of Modena

flees London heading for France, taking the Prince of Wales with her.

21/11 Early this Tuesday morning James flees London,

heading for France; an assemblage

of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal meets in

in London and resolves to apply to William.

22/12 On this remarkable Wednesday James is seized by

fishermen near Sheerness, on the

Isle of Sheppey; and Jeffreys is seized

in London. The terrible evening of

Wednesday/Thursday is forever known as

the Irish Night (or the Irish Fright).

26/16 On this Sunday James returns to London.

28/18 On this Tuesday, exactly one week after his

abortive flight from London, James leaves London

under guard heading for Rochester; later in the day William enters London.

Jan. 3/Dec. 23 On this Sunday, James flees Rochester,

heading for France.

5/25 On this Tuesday, Christmas day O.S., James

arrives in France; the Lords Spiritual and

Spiritual and Temporal request William

to take over the administration of the

government and to summon a convention.

6/26 The Commons request William to take over

the administration of the government and

to summon a convention.

8/28 William agrees to assume administration

of government and to summon a


February 1/Jan. 22 The Convention meets at Westminister.

7/28 The Commons resolves that James has

abdicated the government and that the

throne is thereby vacant.

February 16/6 The Lords Spiritual and Temporal resolve

that William and Mary be made King and


22/12 The Convention approves the Declaration

of Rights of 1689; William’s wife,

Mary, Princess of Orange, arrives in


23/13 On this Ash Wednesday, William and Mary are

offered and accept the crown in

ceremonies at the Banqueting Hall in

Whitehall Palace. They are immediately

proclaimed King William III and Queen Mary II.

March 5/Feb. 23 William approves the first statute of his

reign, the Parliament Act, 1689,

1 W. & M., ch. 1, transforming

the Convention into the Convention Parliament.

March 26/16 William approves the second statute of his

reign, 1 W. & M., ch. 2, an act suspending

habeas corpus for the first time.

April 1/March 22 James lands in Ireland.


April 21/11 Coronation of William and Mary.

28/18 Jeffreys dies a prisoner in the Tower.

May 17/7 England declares war on France.

June 3/May 24 William approves the Toleration Act,

1 W. & M., ch. 18.

September 2/Aug. 23 John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government

is licensed to be printed.

December 26/16 William approves the English Bill of

Rights of 1689, 1 W. & M. sess. 2,

ch. 2. Seven weeks later, on Feb. 16/6

1690/1689, William dissolves the Convention